There are different types of perfectionism (you can have more than one type):
A mistake-fearer: Equating mistakes with failure. This is linked with social anxiety and fear of judgement.
An over-aimer: Setting high expectations for yourself and not meeting those standards means you think you are a failure.
An over-checker: Feeling a need to check things or repeat things multiple times. This can also be found in people with obsessive-compulsive disorder.
An over-organiser: Overly worried about neatness, order and organisation, to the detriment of getting things done. Might be rigid and inflexible about how things are done.
A social-worrier: Feeling pressure from others to perform perfectly, which can be linked shyness and social anxiety.